PharmacoMicrobiomics: The Drug-Microbiome Portal

How Bugs Modulate Drugs?

Launched on 11/11/11; Current Release 1.3 (21 March 15)

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1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based studies of the metabolism of food-borne carcinogen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline by human intestinal microbiota. 16151094 2005 Research
Acetamide--a metabolite of metronidazole formed by the intestinal flora 231450 1979 Research
Alleviating cancer drug toxicity by inhibiting a bacterial enzyme 21051639 2010 Research
Alterations in the intestinal glycocalyx and bacterial flora in response to oral indomethacin. 15979923 2005 Research
Ammonia and glutamine metabolism of the intestine. The effect of lactulose and neomycin. 3759231 1986 Research
An in vitro study on the active conversion of flucytosine to fluorouracil by microorganisms in the human intestinal microflora. 12714804 2003 Research
Anaerobic C-ring cleavage of genistein and daidzein by Eubacterium ramulus. 11959436 2002 Research
Anaerobic metabolism of 1-amino-2-naphthol-based azo dyes (Sudan dyes) by human intestinal microflora. 17933925 2007 Research
Anti-inflammatory properties of a pomegranate extract and its metabolite urolithin-A in a colitis rat model and the effect of colon inflammation on phenolic metabolism. 19616930 2009 Research
Arsenic metabolism by human gut microbiota upon in vitro digestion of contaminated soils. 20603239 2010 Research
Bacterial acetylation of 5-aminosalicylic acid in faecal suspensions cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions 1425876 1992 Research
Bacterial translocation is reduced by a specific nutritional combination in mice with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. 21562235 2011 Research
Bacteroides fragilis RecA protein overexpression causes resistance to metronidazole 20435137 2010 Research
Bacteroides uniformis is a putative bacterial species associated with the degradation of the isoflavone genistein in human feces. 21525249 2011 Research
Baicalin, the predominant flavone glucuronide of scutellariae radix, is absorbed from the rat gastrointestinal tract as the aglycone and restored to its original form. 11197087 2000 Research
Beta-glucuronidase in human intestinal microbiota is necessary for the colonic genotoxicity of the food-borne carcinogen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline in rats. 17660508 2007 Research
Biodegradability of fluoxetine, mefenamic acid, and metoprolol using different microbial consortiums. 28091995 2017 Research
Biodegradation of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products 19245937 2009 Review
Biotransformation of aesculin by human gut bacteria and identification of its metabolites in rat urine. 19322928 2009 Research
Chemical transformation of xenobiotics by the human gut microbiota. 28642381 2017 Review
Chlorogenic acid bioavailability largely depends on its metabolism by the gut microflora in rats. 12771329 2003 Research
Cigarette smoke decreases organic acids levels and population of bifidobacterium in the caecum of rats. 21628954 2011 Research
Ciprofloxacin decreases the rate of ethanol elimination in humans. 10026319 1999 Research
Colonic metabolism of ranitidine: implications for its delivery and absorption 11564550 2001 Research
Cometabolism of microbes and host: implications for drug metabolism and drug-induced toxicity. 23933971 2013 Review
Commensal bacteria control cancer response to therapy by modulating the tumor microenvironment 24264989 2013 Research
Deglycosylation of puerarin and other aromatic C-glucosides by a newly isolated human intestinal bacterium. 20946528 2011 Research
Degradation of insulin and calcitonin and their protection by various protease inhibitors in rat caecal contents: implications in peptide delivery to the colon. 9055189 1997 Research
Degradation of steroids in the human gut. 6350517 1983 Review
Dietary modulation of clostridial cluster XIVa gut bacteria (Roseburia spp.) by chitin-glucan fiber improves host metabolic alterations induced by high-fat diet in mice. 21411304 2011 Research
Dietary selenium affects host selenoproteome expression by influencing the gut microbiota. 21493887 2011 Research
Directly coupled high-performance liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic with chemometric studies on metabolic variation in Sprague--Dawley rats 11401298 2001 Research
Discovery and characterization of gut microbiota decarboxylases that can produce the neurotransmitter tryptamine. 25263219 2014 Research
Effect of Lactobacillus fermentum on beta2 toxin production by Clostridium perfringens. 21602389 2011 Research
Effects of cyadox and olaquindox on intestinal mucosal immunity and on fecal shedding of Escherichia coli in piglets. 16908639 2006 Research
Effects of dietary fibre-rich juice colloids from apple pomace extraction juices on intestinal fermentation products and microbiota in rats. 13129467 2003 Research
Effects of gut microflora on pharmacokinetics of hesperidin: a study on non-antibiotic and pseudo-germ-free rats. 20954071 2010 Research
Effects of intestinal microbiota on the bioavailability of geniposide in rats. 25257195 2014 Research
Effects of lactitol on intestinal microflora and plasma endotoxin in patients with chronic viral hepatitis. 17049992 2006 Research
Encapsulation and micronization effectively improve orange beverage flavanone bioavailability in humans. 25200135 2014 Research
Formation of catechol estrogens by intestinal bacterial demethylation of 2-methoxyestrone 6299367 1983 Research
Formation of catechols via removal of acid side chains from ibuprofen and related aromatic acids. 16204529 2005 Research
Genetic and chemical characterization of ibuprofen degradation by Sphingomonas Ibu-2 23329679 2013 Research
Geographic differences in digoxin inactivation, a metabolic activity of the human anaerobic gut flora. 2759492 1989 Research
Ginsenoside metabolites, rather than naturally occurring ginsenosides, lead to inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes. 16547074 2006 Research
Gut flora metabolism of phosphatidylcholine promotes cardiovascular disease. 21475195 2011 Research
Gut metabotypes govern health effects of dietary polyphenols 23040410 2013 Research
Gut microbiota is critical for the induction of chemotherapy-induced pain. 28714953 2017 Research
Gut microbiota modulation of chemotherapy efficacy and toxicity 28270698 2017 Review
Gut microflora interactions with xylitol in the mouse, rat and man. 4076932 1985 Research
Identification and Functional Characterization of Arylamine N-Acetyltransferases in Eubacteria: Evidence for Highly Selective Acetylation of 5-Aminosalicylic Acid 11344150 2001 Review
Identifying drug-microbiome interactions: the inactivation of doxorubicin by the gut bacterium Raoultella planticola 4294967295 2015 Research
Impact of gut microbiota on intestinal and hepatic levels of phase 2 xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the rat. 19282396 2009 Research
Interaction between phenolics and gut microbiota: role in human health 19580283 2009 Review
Interactions of the gut microflora and the host in toxicology 3055224 1988 Review
Interindividual differences in microbial counts and biochemical-associated variables in the feces of healthy Spanish adults. 16614997 2006 Research
Intestinal anaerobic bacteria hydrolyse sorivudine, producing the high blood concentration of 5-(E)-(2-bromovinyl)uracil that increases the level and toxicity of 5-fluorouracil. 9110360 1997 Research
Intestinal microbiota composition modulates choline bioavailability from diet and accumulation of the proatherogenic metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide. 25784704 2015 Research
Intestinal microbiota metabolism of L-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis. 23563705 2013 Research
Investigations of hydrazine cleavage of eltrombopag in humans. 21646438 2011 Research
Involvement of β-glucuronidase in intestinal microflora in the intestinal toxicity of the antitumor Camptothecin derivative Irinotecan Hydrochloride (CPT-11) in rats 8706020 1996 Research
Irinotecan (CPT-11) chemotherapy alters intestinal microbiota in tumour bearing rats 22844397 2012 Research
Lactobacillus supplementation for diarrhoea related to chemotherapy of colorectal cancer: a randomised study. 17895895 2007 Research
m-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid formation from L-dopa in man: suppression by neomycin. 5350345 1969 Research
Mechanism of cholesterol reduction to coprostanol by Eubacterium coprostanoligenes ATCC 51222. 8789734 1996 Research
Melamine-induced renal toxicity is mediated by the gut microbiota. 23408055 2013 Research
Metabolic conversion of indicine N-oxide to indicine in rabbits and humans. 476682 1979 Research
Metabolic fate of a new histamine H2-receptor antagonist, Z-300, in rat. 10553721 1999 Research
Metabolism of 5'-ether prodrugs of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-E-5-(2-bromovinyl)uracil in rats. 8274153 1993 Research
Metabolism of azo dyes by human skin microbiota. 19729456 2010 Research
Metabolism of cyadox by the intestinal mucosa microsomes and gut flora of swine, and identification of metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry 21766376 2011 Research
Metabolism of daidzein by fecal bacteria in rats. 17605343 2007 Research
Metabolism of digoxin and absorption site. 7104181 1982 Research
Metabolism of Ginseng and its Interactions with Drugs. 21619519 2011 Review
Metabolism of isoflavones and lignans by the gut microflora: a study in germ-free and human flora associated rats 12659715 2003 Research
Metabolism of N-acylated and O-alkylated drugs by the intestinal microflora during anaerobic incubation in vitro 4418213 1974 Research
Metabolism of omeprazole by gut flora in rats. 7629748 1995 Research
Metabolism, microflora effects, and genotoxicity in haloacetic acid-treated cultures of rat cecal microbiota. 11248134 2001 Research
Metformin retards aging in C. elegans by altering microbial folate and methionine metabolism. 23540700 2013 Research
Microbial hydrolysis of steviol glycosides. 18550247 2008 Research
Modulating gut microbiota as an anti-diabetic mechanism of berberine 21709646 2011 Research
Molecular Insights into Microbial beta-Glucuronidase Inhibition to Abrogate CPT-11 Toxicity 23690068 2013 Research
Mutagenicity of azo dyes used in foods, drugs and cosmetics before and after reduction by Clostridium species from the human intestinal tract. 9409630 1997 Research
Mycoplasma hyorhinis-encoded cytidine deaminase efficiently inactivates cytosine-based anticancer drugs. 26322268 2015 Research
Nanotechnology and the transdermal route: A state of the art review and critical appraisal. 19850095 2010 Review
Nectar xylose metabolism in a rodent pollinator (Aethomys namaquensis): defining the role of gastrointestinal microflora using 14C-labeled xylose. 16380937 2005 Research
Notoginseng enhances anti-cancer effect of 5-fluorouracil on human colorectal cancer cells. 17009031 2007 Research
Novel approaches for analysing gut microbes and dietary polyphenols: challenges and opportunities. 20724384 2010 Research
Novel gut-based pharmacology of metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 24988476 2014 Research
Old drug new use--amoxapine and its metabolites as potent bacterial β-glucuronidase inhibitors for alleviating cancer drug toxicity. 24780296 2014 Research
Omeprazole induces altered bile acid metabolism. 9536953 1998 Research
Panaxadiol, a purified ginseng component, enhances the anti-cancer effects of 5-fluorouracil in human colorectal cancer cells. 19277659 2009 Research
Pharmacometabonomic Characterization of Xenobiotic and Endogenous Metabolic Phenotypes That Account for Inter-individual Variation in Isoniazid-Induced Toxicological Response. 22873827 2012 Research
Pharmacometabonomic identification of a significant host-microbiome metabolic interaction affecting human drug metabolism. 19667173 2009 Research
Pharmacometabonomic investigation of dynamic metabolic phenotypes associated with variability in response to galactosamine hepatotoxicity. 22384821 2012 Research
Predicting and manipulating cardiac drug inactivation by the human gut bacterium Eggerthella lenta. 23869020 2013 Research
Recovery and metabolism of xanthohumol in germ-free and human microbiota-associated rats. 20397197 2010 Research
Reduction of nitrazepam by Clostridium leptum, a nitroreductase-producing bacterium isolated from the human intestinal tract 9310649 1997 Research
Reduction of the prodrug loperamide oxide to its active drug loperamide in the gut of rats, dogs, and humans. 7628301 1995 Research
Reshaping faecal gut microbiota composition by the intake of trans-resveratrol and quercetin in high-fat sucrose diet-fed rats 25762527 2015 Research
Rhubarb extract prevents hepatic inflammation induced by acute alcohol intake, an effect related to the modulation of the gut microbiota 26990039 2017 Research
Role of gut flora on intestinal group II phospholipase A2 activity and intestinal injury in shock. 11557516 2001 Research
Role of intestinal bacteria in gliadin-induced changes in intestinal mucosa: study in germ-free rats. 21249146 2011 Research
Role of intestinal microbiota in the generation of polyphenol derived phenolic acid mediated attenuation of Alzheimer's disease β-amyloid oligomerization 25689033 2015 Research
Role of intestinal microorganisms in determining cycasin toxicity. 4960684 1967 Research
Role of the gastrointestinal microflora in amygdalin (laetrile)-induced cyanide toxicity. 7362642 1980 Research
Role of the intestinal flora in the metabolism of misonidazole. 6260109 1980 Research
Role of the intestinal microflora in clonazepam metabolism in the rat. 6506755 1984 Research
Six-Week Consumption of a Wild Blueberry Powder Drink Increases Bifidobacteria in the Human Gut 22060186 2011 Research
Splenda alters gut microflora and increases intestinal p-glycoprotein and cytochrome p-450 in male rats. 18800291 2008 Research
Substantial decreases in the number and diversity of microbiota during chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal mucositis in a rat model. 25376667 2015 Research
Sulindac metabolism: the importance of an intact colon. 4042521 1985 Research
Susceptibility of the H2-receptor antagonists cimetidine, famotidine and nizatidine, to metabolism by the gastrointestinal microflora. 11955801 2002 Research
Symbiotic bacterial metabolites regulate gastrointestinal barrier function via the xenobiotic sensor PXR and Toll-like receptor 4. 25065623 2014 Research
The effect of gut microbiota on drug metabolism 24033282 2013 Review
The effect of low-pressure carbonation on the heat inactivation of Escherichia coli. 21979074 2011 Research
The ellagic acid-derived gut microbiota metabolite, urolithin A, potentiates the anticancer effects of 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy on human colon cancer cells.. 25857357 2015 Research
The human colonic microflora influences the alterations of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes by catechins in male F344 rats 12659723 2003 Research
The impact of intestinal microflora on serum bilirubin levels. 15664250 2005 Research
The Inhibitory Effect of Ciprofloxacin on the β-Glucuronidase-mediated Deconjugation of the Irinotecan Metabolite SN-38-G. 26518357 2016 Research
The intestinal microbiota modulates the anticancer immune effects of cyclophosphamide. 24264990 2013 Research
The metabolic role of the gut microbiota in health and rheumatic disease: mechanisms and interventions. 27256713 2016 Review
The red clover isoflavone irilone is largely resistant to degradation by the human gut microbiota. 19998384 2010 Research
The reduction of sulphinpyrazone and sulindac by intestinal bacteria. 3630204 1987 Research
The role of enteric bacteria in the pathogenesis of fatal cycloheximide intolerance in mice pretreated with dexamethasone, promethazine or nordihydroguaiaretic acid. 8841837 1996 Research
The role of intestinal microbiota in development of irinotecan toxicity and in toxicity reduction through dietary fibres in rats 24454707 2014 Research
The role of mammalian intestinal bacteria in the reductive metabolism of zonisamide 9231340 1997 Research
The role of the gut flora in the metabolism of cyclamate. 4655823 1972 Research
The role of the gut flora in the metabolism of prontosil and neoprontosil in the rat. 5173017 1971 Research
Tissue content of mercury in rats given methylmercuric chloride orally: influence of intestinal flora. 7387196 1980 Research
Transforming berberine into its intestine-absorbable form by the gut microbiota. 26174047 2015 Research
Urinary excretion of reduced metabolites of digoxin. 7246583 1981 Research
Vaginal bacteria modify HIV tenofovir microbicide efficacy in African women. 28572388 2017 Research
Variation of glucoraphanin metabolism in vivo and ex vivo by human gut bacteria. 21342607 2011 Research