PharmacoMicrobiomics: The Drug-Microbiome Portal

How Bugs Modulate Drugs?

Launched on 11/11/11; Current Release 1.5 (21 Mar 2021): Spring of Hope! (Release History)

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Summary Gut microbes (superkingdom: Bacteria) increase Arbidol's toxicity.
Arbidol (PubChem CID: 131411)
Bacteria (Tax ID: 2)
increase toxicity
Possibilities of interaction between traditional herbs and antiviral drugs that used to treat Covid when used in combinations. Traditional Chinese herbs that contain glycoside need to be hydrolyzed by glycosidase in the gut microbiota to more bioavailable and pharmacologically active aglycone like: Polydatin -- B-glucosidase ----> Resveratrol Geniposide -- B-glucosidase ----> Genipin Quercetrin -- α-rhamnosidase--->Quercetin Glycyrrhizin-- B-glucuronidase--> Glycyrrhetinic acid Antiviral drugs (lopinavir, ritonavir, chloroquine, darunavir, ribavirin, arbidol, favipiravir, oseltamivir) could change microbiota composition and its enzyme thereby, inhibiting Chinese medicine activation and leading to toxic product accumulation. Results between 1 to 4 hours of arbidol taking aglycon part of negative control as 100% to normalize the concentration: No significant reduction in resveratrol. Arbidol reduces genipin significantly P<0.05. No significant reduction in quercetin. No significant reduction in Glycyrrhetinic acid. The risk of interaction may be lower in arbidol as it has no significant effect on the metabolism of polydatin, quercetrin, and glycyrrhizin.

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