PharmacoMicrobiomics: The Drug-Microbiome Portal

How Bugs Modulate Drugs?

Launched on 11/11/11; Current Release 1.3 (21 March 15)

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Gut baicalin unknown 11197087 increase hydrolysis Gut microbiota normally hydrolyze baicalin into its corresponding aglycone baicalein ... (Read more)
Gut digoxin Eggerthella lenta 2759492 decrease toxicity Altered concentration of E. lentum between populations has been correlated ... (Read more)
Gut chlorogenic acid unknown 12771329 affect metabolic processing Gut microbiota metabolize chlorogenic acid in to 3- hydroxy cinnamic ... (Read more)
Gut acetaminophen unknown 19667173 affect O-sulfonation Acetaminophen toxicity is associated with elevated levels of p-cresol which ... (Read more)
Gut digoxin unknown 7246583 affect reduction Digoxin toxicity might be due to reduction in Digoxin reduction ... (Read more)
Gut Metronidazole unknown 231450 increase metabolic processing Comparison between metronidazole metabolites between germ-free rats and conventional rats ... (Read more)
Gut zonisamide unknown 9231340 affect reduction Gut microbiota is central to the metabolism of zonisamide by ... (Read more)
Gut sorivudine Bacteroides 9110360 increase toxicity A toxic interaction has been reported in 18 Japanese people ... (Read more)
Skin methyl red Bacteria 19729456 increase degradation Most skin bacteria possess azoreductase activity and are capable of ... (Read more)
Gut genistein Bacteroides uniformis 21525249 increase degradation Bacteroides uniformis is a candidate bacterial species associated with the ... (Read more)
Gut Cycasin unknown 4960684 increase toxicity Gut-associated microbes hydrolyze cycasin into a carcinogenic derivative known as ... (Read more)
Gut genistein Eubacterium ramulus 11959436 increase degradation Quote: "Genistein was completely degraded by E. ramulus via 6'-hydroxy-O-desmethylangolensin ... (Read more)
Gut polyphenols Bifidobacterium sp. 22060186 increase abundance Regular consumption of a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) drink can ... (Read more)
Gut cyadox unknown 21766376 affect metabolic processing Cyadocx is an antimicrobial and growth-promoting feed additive for food-producing ... (Read more)
Gut Berberine unknown 21709646 are affected by activity Berberine is an antimicrobial that inhibits the assembly function of ... (Read more)
Gut eltrombopag unknown 21646438 affect cleavage Human gut microbes are able to cleave the hydrazine linkage ... (Read more)
Gut selenium unknown 21493887 increase abundance The microbiota diversity increased as a result of selenium in ... (Read more)
Gut phosphatidylcholine unknown 21475195 affect metabolic processing Gut microbiota-dependent metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine is believed to increase ... (Read more)
Gut gliadin Bifidobacterium bifidum 21249146 affect N/A Gliadin fragments alone or together with the proinflammatory cytokine interferon ... (Read more)
Gut Arsenic unknown 20603239 affect methylation Human colon microorganisms are capable of actively metabolizin Arsenic into ... (Read more)
Gut urolithin-A unknown 19616930 affect response to substance Studies in rats showed that pomegranate extract (PE) and its ... (Read more)
Gut Splenda unknown 18800291 are affected by N/A Evidence indicates that administration of Splenda exerted numerous adverse effects, ... (Read more)
Gut Stevioside Bacteroides 18550247 affect hydrolysis Bacteroides species are primarily responsible for hydrolysis of Steviol glycosides ... (Read more)
Gut 1-amino-2-naphthol unknown 17933925 affect reduction The human intestinal bacteria are able to reduce Sudan dyes ... (Read more)
Gut diadzein unknown 17605343 affect metabolic processing Daidzein (4',7-dihydroxyisoflavone), a soy phytoestrogen, is a weakly estrogenic compound ... (Read more)
Gut Lactitol unknown 17049992 are affected by N/A Lactitol can decrease the levels of plasma endotoxin more effectively ... (Read more)
Gut olaquindox Escherichia coli 16908639 are affected by N/A Olaquindox is used as a growth promoter in pigs. Olaquindox ... (Read more)
Gut Xylose unknown 16380937 affect metabolic processing In the Namaqua rock mouse (Aethomys namaquensis), the gut microbiota ... (Read more)
Gut iQ unknown 16151094 affect mutagenesis 2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) is a mutagenic/carcinogenic compound formed from meat and ... (Read more)
Gut indomethacin unknown 15979923 N/A N/A Oral administration of indomethacin produces oxidative damage in the small ... (Read more)
Gut bilirubin unknown 15664250 affect metabolic processing Intestinal microbes greatly affect the metabolism of bilirubin. The prolonged ... (Read more)
Gut Colloids unknown 13129467 N/A N/A The physiological effects of apple diatery fiber isolated from pomace ... (Read more)
Gut phospholipase A2 unknown 11557516 affect activity Platlet activation factor and Lipoplysaccaride induced increases in PLA2-II activity ... (Read more)
Gut chloroacetic acid Enterococcus 11248134 N/A N/A Haloacetic acids are by-products of drinking water disinfection ,this compounds ... (Read more)
Gut Z-300 unknown 10553721 affect reduction The metabolisms of Z-300 in rat was found to produce ... (Read more)
Gut Ethanol unknown 10026319 affect oxidation Extrahepatic ethanol metabolism take place via microbial oxidation in the ... (Read more)
Gut Omeprazole unknown 9536953 N/A N/A Omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, causes gastric juice to shift ... (Read more)
Gut cycloheximide unknown 8841837 affect toxicity This indicated that the three drugs dexamethasone, promethazine and nordihydroguaiaretic ... (Read more)
Gut Loperamide oxide unknown 7628301 affect reduction Iintestinal microflora is able to reduce Loperamide oxide to Loperamide ... (Read more)
Gut ammonia unknown 3759231 affect uptake Elimination of the aerobic microorganisms results in a minute decrease ... (Read more)
Gut xylitol unknown 4076932 N/A N/A Gut microbiota is able to utilize xylitol. Xylitol feeding shifts ... (Read more)
Gut methylmercuric chloride unknown 7387196 affect metabolic processing metabolism of methylmercuric chloride by the gut flora reduces the ... (Read more)
Gut indicine N-oxide unknown 476682 affect reduction Gut flora play a major role in the metabolic reduction ... (Read more)
Gut cyclamate Enterococcus 4655823 affect metabolic processing Enteroccoci has the ability to convert cyclamate into cyclohexylamine, which ... (Read more)
Gut Levodopa unknown 5350345 affect hydroxylation Gut flora produce m-hydroxyphenylacetic acid form L-dopa by p-de-hydroxylation. (Read more)
Gut nitrazepam Clostridium leptum 9310649 N/A reduction The gut microbiota is the primary site for reductive metabolism ... (Read more)
Gut prontosil unknown 5173017 N/A reduction The conversion of prontosil and neoprontosil to sulfanilamide by aid ... (Read more)
Gut clonazepam unknown 6506755 N/A reduction incubation of clonazepam with rat intestinal lumen contents gave nearly ... (Read more)
Gut Misonidazole unknown 6260109 N/A reduction misonidazole is metabolised to its amino derivative [1-(2-aminoimidazol-1-yl)- 3-methoxypropan-2-ol] in ... (Read more)
Gut Omeprazole unknown 7629748 N/A reduction In vitro experiments showed that omeprazole is reduced to sulfide ... (Read more)
Gut Sulfinpyrazone unknown 3630204 affect reduction Gut microbiota reduce sulfinpyrazone into sulfinpyrazone sulfide metabolite. (Read more)
Gut Sulindac unknown 3630204 affect reduction Sulindac a nonsteroid anti-inflammatory analgesic reduced by gut microbiota to ... (Read more)
Gut digoxin unknown 7104181 affect reduction Some patients treated with digoxin may convert the cardiac glycoside ... (Read more)
Gut zonisamide unknown 9231340 affect reduction Zonisamide is an anticonvulsant drug. It is primarily metabolised to ... (Read more)
Gut Metronidazole Clostridium perfringens 231450 affect reduction N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-oxamic acid and acetamide are formed when metronidazole is reduced ... (Read more)
Gut sorivudine Bacteroides eggerthii 9110360 affect hydrolysis Bacteroides species, such as Bacteroides eggerthii , which abundantly exist ... (Read more)
Gut sorivudine Bacteroides vulgatus 9110360 affect hydrolysis Bacteroides species, such as Bacteroides vulgatus, which abundantly exist in ... (Read more)
Gut 5-aminosalicylic acid unknown 1425876 affect acetylation 5-ASA is acetylated in human faecal suspensions under both aerobic ... (Read more)
Gut phenacetin unknown 4418213 affect acetylation when rat caecal contents are incubated with phenacetin under anaerobic ... (Read more)
Gut ranitidine unknown 11564550 affect metabolic processing A marked decline in ranitidine concentration was noted over time, ... (Read more)
Gut nizatidine unknown 11955801 affect metabolic processing A marked decline in nizatidine concentration over time was noted ... (Read more)
Gut insulin unknown 9055189 affect metabolic processing peptide drugs such as insulin are degraded by some proteolytic ... (Read more)
Gut calcitonin unknown 9055189 affect metabolic processing peptide drugs such as calcitonin is degraded by some proteolytic ... (Read more)
Gut 2-methoxyestrone unknown 6299367 increase activity Gut microbiota are believed to convert 2-methoxy esterone to the ... (Read more)
Gut chloramphenicol Escherichia coli 21979074 increase toxicity Coliforms have been reported to generate toxic metabolites for chloramphenicol. (Read more)
Gut catechin unknown 20724384 are affected by abundance catechin significantly inhibited growth of Clostridium histolyticum, whereas growth of ... (Read more)
Gut cyclophosphamide Firmicutes 24264990 increase activity Gram-positive bacteria, translocated into secondary lymphoid organs upon treatment with ... (Read more)
Environmental ibuprofen Sphingomonas sp. Ibu-2 23329679 increase degradation Sphingomonas Ibu-2 has the unusual ability to cleave the acid ... (Read more)
Gut Geniposide unknown 25257195 decrease bioavailability In antibiotics-treated rats, the systemic exposure of geniposide was greater ... (Read more)
Gut digoxin Eggerthella lenta 23869020 increase reduction In 2013, the genetic basis for digoxin reduction by the ... (Read more)
Gut Irinotecan Escherichia coli 8706020 affect glucuronidation Irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11) an antitumer drug, causes sever dairrhea clincally ... (Read more)
Unknown Fluoxetine unknown 28091995 increase degradation Fluoxetine removal was shown to be mainly through biodegradation. The ... (Read more)
Unknown Mefenamic Acid unknown 28091995 increase degradation Mefenamic acid removal was shown to be mainly through biodegradation. ... (Read more)
Unknown Metoprolol unknown 28091995 increase degradation Metoprolol removal was shown to be mainly through biodegradation. The ... (Read more)
Urogenital tract tenofovir Gardnerella vaginalis 28572388 increase metabolic processing "Detectible mucosal tenofovir was lower in non-Lactobacillus women, negatively correlating ... (Read more)
Gut l‑carnitine unknown 23563705 increase toxicity The gut microbiota converts dietary [choline and L-carnitine] to trimethylamine ... (Read more)
Gut L-tryptophan unknown 25263219 increase toxicity Gut bacteria metabolizes L-tryptophan into many products, including the antioxidant ... (Read more)
Gut Cholesterol Eubacterium coprostanoligenes 8789734 increase excretion Cholesterol can be remove from circulation by the action of ... (Read more)
Gut Melamine Klebsiella 23408055 increase toxicity Gut microbiota deaminate melamine to generate ammonia and cyanuric acid. ... (Read more)
Gut amygdalin unknown 7362642 increase toxicity Animal experiments showed that gut microbes hydrolyze the glycosidic linkage ... (Read more)
Gut Ellagic acid unknown 25857357 increase activity Ellagic acid, a product of dietary polyphenols found in certain ... (Read more)
Unknown gemcitabine Mycoplasma hyorhinis 26322268 decrease activity Gemcitabine a cytosine-based anticancer drugs, which inactivated by the action ... (Read more)
Gut benzoisoquinoline unknown 26174047 increase bioavailability Gut microbes metabolize berberine (a plant-derived benzoisoquinoline alkaloid), allowing its ... (Read more)
Gut ginsenoside unknown 16547074 affect metabolic processing Gut bacteria convert ginsenosides (the major bioactive components of ginseng) ... (Read more)
Gut oxaliplatin unknown 28714953 increase toxicity It has been found that gut microbiota promotes the development ... (Read more)
Gut Lovastatin unknown 24947972 increase activity This study shows that gut microbes increase the convertion of ... (Read more)
Gut salicin Lactobacillus acidophilus 29382739 increase bioavailability One of gut microbe, Lactobacillus acidophilus, catalytically unwraps plant glucosides ... (Read more)
Gut Amlodipine unknown 26630218 decrease bioavailability Amlodipine is a calcium channel blocker that is frequently prescribed ... (Read more)
Gut Nifdipine unknown 29391236 N/A bioavailability Nifedipine could be metabolized by gut microbial enzymes, which may ... (Read more)
Gut poncirin Bifidobacterium dentium 25179902 increase metabolic processing Upon investigation of enzymatic properties, α-L-rhamnosidase-producing bacteria (Bifidobacterium dentium) ,It ... (Read more)
Gut Rutin Bifidobacterium dentium 25179902 increase metabolic processing Upon investigation of enzymatic properties, α-L-rhamnosidase-producing bacteria (Bifidobacterium dentium) ,It ... (Read more)
Gut metformin unknown 24988476 increase activity Gut microbes play a role in metformin pharmacology as oral ... (Read more)
Gut hesperetin unknown 25200135 increase bioavailability Gut microbiota enhance hesperetin bioavailability Nedd interaction with gut microbe ... (Read more)
Gut Levodopa Lactobacillus 30659181 decrease bioavailability This study shows how levodopa can be affected by gut ... (Read more)
Gut Carboplatin Prevotella copri 31558709 increase toxicity Carboplatin is a widely used anticancer drug and like most ... (Read more)
Gut Nivolumab Prevotella copri 31026576 increase response to substance patient with Non-small-cell lung carcinoma receiving nivolumab (anti–PD-1) with great ... (Read more)
Gut Aspirin unknown 31700098 increase toxicity drug-drug interaction between Aspirin and Amoxicillin. it's sought that aspirin ... (Read more)
Gut Amphetamine Escherichia coli 30701587 increase activity The central nervous system stimulant, amphetamine, can be metabolized by ... (Read more)