PharmacoMicrobiomics: The Drug-Microbiome Portal

How Bugs Modulate Drugs?

Launched on 11/11/11; Current Release 1.5 (21 Mar 2021): Spring of Hope! (Release History)

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Gut baicalin unknown 11197087
(Year: 2000)
increase hydrolysis The gut microbiota normally hydrolyzes baicalin into ... (Read more)
Gut digoxin Eggerthella lenta 2759492
(Year: 1989)
decrease toxicity Altered concentration of Eubacterium lentum (now Eggerthella ... (Read more)
Gut chlorogenic acid unknown 12771329
(Year: 2003)
affect metabolic processing The gut microbiota metabolize chlorogenic acid into ... (Read more)
Gut acetaminophen unknown 19667173
(Year: 2009)
affect O-sulfonation Acetaminophen toxicity is associated with elevated levels ... (Read more)
Gut digoxin unknown 7246583
(Year: 1981)
affect reduction Oral administration of the antibiotic erythromycin was ... (Read more)
Gut Metronidazole unknown 231450
(Year: 1979)
increase metabolic processing Comparison of metronidazole metabolites between germ-free and ... (Read more)
Gut zonisamide unknown 9231340
(Year: 1997)
affect reduction The gut microbiota is central to the ... (Read more)
Gut sorivudine Bacteroides 9110360
(Year: 1997)
increase hydrolysis A toxic interaction has been reported in ... (Read more)
Skin methyl red Bacteria 19729456
(Year: 2010)
increase degradation Most skin bacteria possess azoreductase activity and ... (Read more)
Gut genistein Bacteroides uniformis 21525249
(Year: 2011)
increase degradation Bacteroides uniformis is a candidate bacterial species ... (Read more)
Gut Cycasin unknown 4960684
(Year: 1967)
increase toxicity Gut-associated microbes hydrolyze cycasin into a carcinogenic ... (Read more)
Gut genistein Eubacterium ramulus 11959436
(Year: 2002)
increase degradation Quote: "Genistein was completely degraded by E. ... (Read more)
Gut polyphenols Bifidobacterium sp. 22060186
(Year: 2011)
increase abundance Regular consumption of a wild blueberry (Vaccinium ... (Read more)
Gut cyadox unknown 21766376
(Year: 2011)
affect metabolic processing Cyadox is an antimicrobial and growth-promoting feed ... (Read more)
Gut Berberine unknown 21709646
(Year: 2011)
are affected by activity Berberine is an antimicrobial that inhibits the ... (Read more)
Gut eltrombopag unknown 21646438
(Year: 2011)
affect cleavage Human gut microbes are able to cleave ... (Read more)
Gut selenium unknown 21493887
(Year: 2011)
increase abundance The microbiota diversity increases as a result ... (Read more)
Gut phosphatidylcholine unknown 21475195
(Year: 2011)
affect metabolic processing Gut microbiota-dependent metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine is ... (Read more)
Gut gliadin Bifidobacterium bifidum 21249146
(Year: 2011)
affect N/A Fragments of the dietary wheat gluten proteins ... (Read more)
Gut Arsenic unknown 20603239
(Year: 2010)
affect methylation Human colon microorganisms are capable of actively ... (Read more)
Gut urolithin-A unknown 19616930
(Year: 2009)
affect response to substance Studies in rats showed that pomegranate extract ... (Read more)
Gut Splenda unknown 18800291
(Year: 2008)
are affected by N/A Evidence indicates that administration of Splenda exerted ... (Read more)
Gut Stevioside Bacteroides 18550247
(Year: 2008)
affect hydrolysis Bacteroides species are primarily responsible for hydrolysis ... (Read more)
Gut 1-amino-2-naphthol unknown 17933925
(Year: 2007)
affect reduction The human intestinal bacteria are able to ... (Read more)
Gut diadzein unknown 17605343
(Year: 2007)
affect metabolic processing Daidzein (4',7-dihydroxyisoflavone), a soy phytoestrogen, is a ... (Read more)
Gut Lactitol unknown 17049992
(Year: 2006)
are affected by N/A Lactitol can decrease the levels of plasma ... (Read more)
Gut olaquindox Escherichia coli 16908639
(Year: 2006)
are affected by N/A Olaquindox is used as a growth promoter ... (Read more)
Gut Xylose unknown 16380937
(Year: 2005)
affect metabolic processing In the Namaqua rock mouse (Aethomys namaquensis), ... (Read more)
Gut iQ unknown 16151094
(Year: 2005)
affect mutagenesis 2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) is a mutagenic/carcinogenic compound formed ... (Read more)
Gut indomethacin unknown 15979923
(Year: 2005)
N/A N/A Oral administration of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ... (Read more)
Gut bilirubin unknown 15664250
(Year: 2005)
affect metabolic processing Intestinal microbes greatly affect the metabolism of ... (Read more)
Gut Apple pomace unknown 13129467
(Year: 2003)
are affected by N/A Apple dietary fibers isolated from pomace extraction ... (Read more)
Gut phospholipase A2 unknown 11557516
(Year: 2001)
affect activity Platelet activation factor and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can ... (Read more)
Gut chloroacetic acid Enterococcus 11248134
(Year: 2001)
are affected by toxicity Haloacetic acids, are by-products of drinking water ... (Read more)
Gut Z-300 unknown 10553721
(Year: 1999)
affect reduction The metabolisms of the histamine H2-receptor antagonist, ... (Read more)
Gut Ethanol unknown 10026319
(Year: 1999)
affect oxidation Extrahepatic ethanol metabolism takes place via microbial ... (Read more)
Gut Omeprazole unknown 9536953
(Year: 1998)
N/A N/A Omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, causes the ... (Read more)
Gut cycloheximide unknown 8841837
(Year: 1996)
affect toxicity The three drugs dexamethasone, promethazine and nordihydroguaiaretic ... (Read more)
Gut Loperamide oxide unknown 7628301
(Year: 1995)
affect reduction The intestinal microbiota is able to reduce ... (Read more)
Gut L-glutamine unknown 3759231
(Year: 1986)
affect uptake In rats, the influence of gut bacteria ... (Read more)
Gut xylitol unknown 4076932
(Year: 1985)
N/A N/A The gut microbiota is able to utilize ... (Read more)
Gut methylmercuric chloride unknown 7387196
(Year: 1980)
affect metabolic processing Metabolism of methylmercuric chloride by the gut ... (Read more)
Gut indicine N-oxide unknown 476682
(Year: 1979)
affect reduction In humans and rabbits, the gut microbiota ... (Read more)
Gut cyclamate Enterococcus 4655823
(Year: 1972)
affect metabolic processing Enteroccoci have the ability to convert cyclamate ... (Read more)
Gut Levodopa unknown 5350345
(Year: 1969)
affect hydroxylation The gut microbiota produces m-hydroxyphenylacetic acid form ... (Read more)
Gut nitrazepam Clostridium leptum 9310649
(Year: 1997)
increase reduction The gut microbiota is the primary player ... (Read more)
Gut prontosil unknown 5173017
(Year: 1971)
N/A reduction The conversion of prontosil and neoprontosil to ... (Read more)
Gut clonazepam unknown 6506755
(Year: 1984)
N/A reduction Ex vivo incubation of clonazepam with rat ... (Read more)
Gut Misonidazole unknown 6260109
(Year: 1980)
N/A reduction Misonidazole, a radiation sensitizer, is metabolized to ... (Read more)
Gut Omeprazole unknown 7629748
(Year: 1995)
N/A reduction In vitro experiments showed that omeprazole is ... (Read more)
Gut Sulfinpyrazone unknown 3630204
(Year: 1987)
affect reduction The gut microbiota reduce sulfinpyrazone, a drug ... (Read more)
Gut Sulindac unknown 3630204
(Year: 1987)
affect reduction Sulindac, a nonsteroid anti-inflammatory analgesic, is reduced ... (Read more)
Gut digoxin unknown 7104181
(Year: 1982)
affect reduction Some patients treated with digoxin may convert ... (Read more)
Gut zonisamide Clostridium sporogenes 9231340
(Year: 1997)
affect reduction Zonisamide is an anticonvulsant drug. It is ... (Read more)
Gut Metronidazole Clostridium perfringens 231450
(Year: 1979)
affect reduction N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-oxamic acid and acetamide are metabolites that ... (Read more)
Gut sorivudine Bacteroides eggerthii 9110360
(Year: 1997)
affect hydrolysis Bacteroides species, such as Bacteroides vulgatus, which ... (Read more)
Gut sorivudine Bacteroides vulgatus 9110360
(Year: 1997)
affect hydrolysis Bacteroides species, such as Bacteroides vulgatus, which ... (Read more)
Gut 5-aminosalicylic acid unknown 1425876
(Year: 1992)
affect acetylation 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA is acetylated in human ... (Read more)
Gut phenacetin unknown 4418213
(Year: 1974)
affect acetylation The rat caecal microbiota is able to ... (Read more)
Gut ranitidine unknown 11564550
(Year: 2001)
affect metabolic processing A marked decline in ranitidine concentration over ... (Read more)
Gut nizatidine unknown 11955801
(Year: 2002)
affect metabolic processing A marked decline in nizatidine concentration over ... (Read more)
Gut insulin unknown 9055189
(Year: 1997)
affect metabolic processing Peptide drugs, such as insulin and calcitonin, ... (Read more)
Gut calcitonin unknown 9055189
(Year: 1997)
affect metabolic processing Peptide drugs, such as calcitonin and insulin, ... (Read more)
Gut 2-methoxyestrone unknown 6299367
(Year: 1983)
increase activity Members of the gut microbiota are believed ... (Read more)
Gut chloramphenicol Escherichia coli 21979074
(Year: 2011)
increase toxicity Coliforms have been reported to generate toxic ... (Read more)
Gut catechin unknown 20724384
(Year: 2010)
are affected by abundance In a study on polyphenols, catechin significantly ... (Read more)
Gut cyclophosphamide Firmicutes 24264990
(Year: 2013)
increase activity Gram-positive bacteria, translocated into secondary lymphoid organs ... (Read more)
Environmental ibuprofen Sphingomonas sp. Ibu-2 23329679
(Year: 2013)
increase degradation Sphingomonas Ibu-2 has the unusual ability to ... (Read more)
Gut Geniposide unknown 25257195
(Year: 2014)
decrease bioavailability In antibiotics-treated rats, the systemic exposure of ... (Read more)
Gut digoxin Eggerthella lenta 23869020
(Year: 2013)
increase reduction In 2013, the genetic basis for digoxin ... (Read more)
Gut Irinotecan Escherichia coli 8706020
(Year: 1996)
affect glucuronidation Irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11), an antitumor drug, causes ... (Read more)
Unknown Fluoxetine unknown 28091995
(Year: 2017)
increase degradation Fluoxetine was shown to be mainly eliminated ... (Read more)
Unknown Mefenamic Acid unknown 28091995
(Year: 2017)
increase degradation Mefenamic acid was shown to be mainly ... (Read more)
Unknown Metoprolol unknown 28091995
(Year: 2017)
increase degradation Metoprolol removal was shown to be mainly ... (Read more)
Urogenital tract tenofovir Gardnerella vaginalis 28572388
(Year: 2017)
increase metabolic processing The vaginal microbiota significantly modulated the microbicide ... (Read more)
Gut l‑carnitine unknown 23563705
(Year: 2013)
increase toxicity The gut microbiota converts dietary choline and ... (Read more)
Gut L-tryptophan unknown 25263219
(Year: 2014)
increase toxicity Gut bacteria metabolize L-tryptophan into many products, ... (Read more)
Gut Cholesterol Eubacterium coprostanoligenes 8789734
(Year: 1996)
increase excretion Cholesterol can be removed from circulation by ... (Read more)
Gut Melamine Klebsiella 23408055
(Year: 2013)
increase toxicity The gut microbiota deaminates melamine to generate ... (Read more)
Gut amygdalin unknown 7362642
(Year: 1980)
increase toxicity Animal experiments showed that gut microbes hydrolyze ... (Read more)
Gut Ellagic acid unknown 25857357
(Year: 2015)
increase activity Ellagic acid, a product of dietary polyphenols ... (Read more)
Unknown gemcitabine Mycoplasma hyorhinis 26322268
(Year: 2015)
decrease activity Gemcitabine, a cytosine-based anticancer drug, is inactivated ... (Read more)
Gut benzoisoquinoline unknown 26174047
(Year: 2015)
increase bioavailability Gut microbes metabolize berberine (a plant-derived benzoisoquinoline ... (Read more)
Gut ginsenoside unknown 16547074
(Year: 2006)
affect metabolic processing Gut bacteria convert ginsenosides (the major bioactive ... (Read more)
Gut Lovastatin unknown 24947972
(Year: 2014)
increase activity This study shows that gut microbes increase ... (Read more)
Gut salicin Lactobacillus acidophilus 29382739
(Year: 2018)
increase bioavailability The gut microbe, Lactobacillus acidophilus, catalytically unwraps ... (Read more)
Gut Amlodipine unknown 26630218
(Year: 2016)
decrease bioavailability Amlodipine is a calcium channel blocker that ... (Read more)
Gut Nifdipine unknown 29391236
(Year: 2018)
N/A bioavailability Gut microbial enzymes can metabolize Nifedipine, thus ... (Read more)
Gut poncirin Bifidobacterium dentium 25179902
(Year: 2015)
increase metabolic processing Upon investigation of enzymatic properties, α-L-rhamnosidase-producing bacteria ... (Read more)
Gut Rutin Bifidobacterium dentium 25179902
(Year: 2015)
increase metabolic processing Upon investigation of enzymatic properties, α-L-rhamnosidase-producing bacteria ... (Read more)
Gut metformin unknown 24988476
(Year: 2014)
increase activity Gut microbes play a role in metformin ... (Read more)
Gut hesperidin unknown 32443766
(Year: 2020)
increase bioavailability The gut microbiota plays a role in ... (Read more)
Gut Levodopa Lactobacillus 30659181
(Year: 2019)
decrease bioavailability This study shows how levodopa can be ... (Read more)
Gut Carboplatin Prevotella copri 31558709
(Year: 2019)
increase toxicity Carboplatin is a widely used anticancer drug, ... (Read more)
Gut Nivolumab Prevotella copri 31026576
(Year: 2019)
increase response to substance Patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma receiving nivolumab ... (Read more)
Gut Aspirin unknown 31700098
(Year: 2019)
decrease toxicity The interaction between aspirin and amoxicillin is ... (Read more)
Gut Amphetamine Escherichia coli 30701587
(Year: 2019)
increase activity The central nervous system stimulant, amphetamine, can ... (Read more)
Gut 5-Fluorouracil Escherichia coli 32444616
(Year: 2020)
increase toxicity A diet containing thymidine and serine could ... (Read more)
Gut Irinotecan Lactobacillus 33298215
(Year: 2020)
decrease toxicity Irinotecan is a chemotherapeutic agent that could ... (Read more)
Gut naringin Bifidobacterium dentium 25179902
(Year: 2015)
increase metabolic processing Upon investigation of enzymatic properties, α-L-rhamnosidase-producing bacteria ... (Read more)
Gut Amlodipine unknown 29391236
(Year: 2018)
decrease activity Amlodipine is an anti-hypertensive drug. Bacterial hepatic ... (Read more)
Gut 5-Fluorouracil Bacteroides 9110360
(Year: 1997)
increase toxicity A toxic interaction has been reported in ... (Read more)
Gut Methotrexate Bacteroides 24192039
(Year: 2013)
decrease activity The dihydrofolate reductase (DHF) inhibitor, methotrexate, is ... (Read more)
Gut Methotrexate Prevotella 24192039
(Year: 2013)
increase activity The dihydrofolate reductase (DHF) inhibitor, methotrexate, is ... (Read more)
Gut Atorvastatin Bacteria 32466086
(Year: 2020)
increase activity Atorvastatin shows unexplained interindividual variability in lowering ... (Read more)
Gut Berberine Ruminococcus bromii 33024120
(Year: 2020)
affect activity Depletion of Ruminococcus bromii with berberine, a ... (Read more)
Gut Berberine Akkermansia muciniphila 31833107
(Year: 2020)
increase activity Berberine an alkaloid used in China to ... (Read more)
Gut curcumin unknown 32095862
(Year: 2020)
increase activity The gut microbiota metabolizes curcumin to compounds ... (Read more)
Gut Oxaliplatin unknown 33732014
(Year: 2021)
decrease toxicity Hydrogenated water-induced changes in the gut microbiota ... (Read more)
Gut Olanzapine Alistipes 33819741
(Year: 2021)
decrease bioavailability Olanzapine, an orally active antipsychotic drug, was ... (Read more)
Gut Risperidone unknown 33819741
(Year: 2021)
N/A bioavailability The antipsychotics drug risperidone shows no change ... (Read more)
Gut Olanzapine Bacteria 25506936
(Year: 2014)
increase N/A Olanzapine is an antipsychotic drug causes weight ... (Read more)
Gut Olanzapine Bacteria 24084940
(Year: 2013)
increase N/A Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic drug, causes a ... (Read more)
Gut Aspirin Fusobacterium nucleatum 33824205
(Year: 2021)
affect toxicity The anti-inflammatory drug, aspirin, can be used ... (Read more)
Gut Ribavirin Bacteria 33964992
(Year: 2021)
increase toxicity Possibilities of interaction between traditional herbs and ... (Read more)
Gut Lopinavir Bacteria 33964992
(Year: 2021)
increase toxicity Possibilities of interaction between traditional herbs and ... (Read more)
Gut Ritonavir Bacteria 33964992
(Year: 2021)
increase toxicity Possibilities of interaction between traditional herbs and ... (Read more)
Gut Arbidol Bacteria 33964992
(Year: 2021)
increase toxicity Possibilities of interaction between traditional herbs and ... (Read more)
Gut Favipiravir Bacteria 33964992
(Year: 2021)
increase toxicity Possibilities of interaction between traditional herbs and ... (Read more)
Gut Oseltamivir Bacteria 33964992
(Year: 2021)
increase toxicity Possibilities of interaction between traditional herbs and ... (Read more)
Gut Chloroquine Bacteria 33964992
(Year: 2021)
increase toxicity Possibilities of interaction between traditional herbs and ... (Read more)
Gut Darunavir Bacteria 33964992
(Year: 2021)
increase toxicity Possibilities of interaction between traditional herbs and ... (Read more)
Gut Resveratrol Lactobacillus reuteri 33722710
(Year: 2021)
decrease toxicity Resveratrol is a natural phenolic compound with ... (Read more)
Gut Morphine Bacteria 34168553
(Year: 2021)
increase activity Morphine is an opioid drug with highly ... (Read more)
Gut Methotrexate unknown 5014749
(Year: 1972)
decrease activity A dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor, methotrexate, is widely ... (Read more)
Gut Methotrexate Firmicutes 32544340
(Year: 2020)
decrease toxicity Methotrexate, a chemotherapeutic agent, inhibits DNA synthesis ... (Read more)
Gut Methotrexate Bacteroides fragilis 30049384
(Year: 2018)
decrease toxicity Methotrexate, a widely used anticancer drug, can ... (Read more)
Gut warfarin Bacteroides fragilis 32633584
(Year: 2021)
increase toxicity Warfarin is an anti-coagulant drug can be ... (Read more)
Gut Methotrexate unknown 33314800
(Year: 2020)
affect activity Methotrexate is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used ... (Read more)
Gut Methotrexate unknown 33314800
(Year: 2020)
affect activity Methotrexate is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used ... (Read more)
Gut Methotrexate Blautia coccoides 33383956
(Year: 2020)
decrease toxicity Methotrexate is an anticancer drug can cause ... (Read more)
Gut Levodopa Enterococcus faecalis 31196984
(Year: 2019)
increase toxicity Levodopa, antiparkinson's drug, needs to be activated ... (Read more)
Gut Levodopa Eggerthella lenta 31196984
(Year: 2019)
decrease bioavailability Levodopa, antiparkinson's drug, needs to be activated ... (Read more)
Gut olsalazine Clostridium 25091594
(Year: 2014)
increase activity Azo bounded is a group of antibiotics ... (Read more)
Gut Anserine unknown 34382991
(Year: 2021)
increase activity Anserine, a natural derivative of carnosine, can ... (Read more)
Gut atezolizumab Firmicutes 32847937
(Year: 2020)
affect activity Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are recently being ... (Read more)
Gut Anti- CTLA4 Bifidobacterium pseudolongum 32792462
(Year: 2020)
increase activity Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are an effective ... (Read more)
Gut Berberine Akkermansia 34480937
(Year: 2021)
increase activity Berberine, a drug used to treat type ... (Read more)
Gut Nuciferine Firmicutes 33262480
(Year: 2020)
affect activity Nuciferine is a compound extracted from lotus ... (Read more)
Gut Methotrexate unknown 33440172
(Year: 2021)
affect activity Methotrexate, a dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor, is used ... (Read more)
Gut Olanzapine Bifidobacterium 34002246
(Year: 2021)
decrease toxicity Olanzapine is a drug used in psychosis ... (Read more)
Gut Rituximab Lactobacillus reuteri 34712207
(Year: 2021)
decrease toxicity An immune therapy, Rituximab, is widely used ... (Read more)
Gut sulfanilamide Firmicutes 34625106
(Year: 2021)
increase bioavailability Sulfanilamide is an antibiotic prodrug that needs ... (Read more)
Gut levamisole Bacteroides 1949905
(Year: 1991)
increase activity Levamisole is an anthelmintic drug in veterinary ... (Read more)
Urogenital tract Metronidazole Lactobacillus 33262350
(Year: 2020)
decrease activity metronidazole is the nitroimidazole antibiotic and antiprotozoal ... (Read more)
Gut Oxaliplatin Akkermansia muciniphila 34603035
(Year: 2021)
increase activity FOLFOX (oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and calcium folinate) is ... (Read more)
Gut Metronidazole unknown 34752478
(Year: 2021)
increase metabolic processing Metronidazole, nitroimidazole antimicrobials, is used to kill ... (Read more)