PharmacoMicrobiomics: The Drug-Microbiome Portal

How Bugs Modulate Drugs?

Launched on 11/11/11; Current Release 1.5 (21 Mar 2021): Spring of Hope! (Release History)

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Summary Gut microbes (superkingdom: Bacteria) increase Chloroquine's toxicity.
Chloroquine (PubChem CID: 2719)
Bacteria (Tax ID: 2)
increase toxicity
Possibilities of interaction between traditional herbs and antiviral drugs that used to treat Covid when used in combinations. Traditional Chinese herbs that contain glycoside need to be hydrolyzed by glycosidase in the gut microbiota to more bioavailable and pharmacologically active aglycone like: Polydatin -- B-glucosidase ----> Resveratrol Geniposide -- B-glucosidase ----> Genipin Quercetrin -- α-rhamnosidase--->Quercetin Glycyrrhizin-- B-glucuronidase--> Glycyrrhetinic acid Antiviral drugs (lopinavir, ritonavir, chloroquine, darunavir, ribavirin, arbidol, favipiravir, oseltamivir) could change microbiota composition and its enzyme thereby, inhibiting Chinese medicine activation and leading to toxic product accumulation. Results between 1 to 4 hours of Chloroquine taking aglycon part of negative control as 100% to normalize the concentration: No significant reduction in resveratrol. Chloroquine reduces genipin significantly P<0.05 by more than 80%. Chloroquine reduces quercetin significantly P<0.05 by more than 70%. No significant reduction in Glycyrrhetinic acid. In vitro inhibition of bacterial β-glucosidase, α-rhamnosidase and β-glucuronidase by chloroquine: chloroquine shows a weak inhibitory effect on β-glucosidase and no inhibition on α-rhamnosidase.

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